Akimiski Island Reports

The following 7 reports were compiled by Ron Pittaway and posted to Ontbirds and Shorebirds listservs.

James Bay - Akimiski Island Report # 1
From: Jean Iron <jeaniron AT SYMPATICO.CA>
Date: Thu, 22 May 2008 18:21:56 -0400

Jean Iron just phoned me from Moosonee before flying out at 5:00 p.m.
on an Ontario Government aircraft to Akimiski Island (Nunavut) in James
Bay. She is a volunteer with the Ontario Ministry of Natural
Resources (OMNR) under the direction of Research Scientist Ken
Abraham. She is also assisting Professor Erica Nol and her students
from Trent University who are studying shorebirds such as the
Semipalmated Plover and Marbled Godwit.

Earlier today on the 186 mile train trip from Cochrane to Moosonee
they observed yellowlegs and lots of Wilson's Snipe. The train went
slowly because the frost is coming out of the rail bed over the muskeg.

Jean will call me every few days by satellite phone from Akimiski and
I'll post shorebird updates.

Here's a satellite photo of Akimiski Island, which is the largest
island in James Bay.

James Bay - Akimiski Island Report # 2
From: Jean Iron <jeaniron AT SYMPATICO.CA>
Date: Sun, 25 May 2008 11:16:46 -0400

I had a satellite phone call from Jean Iron last night on Akimiski
Island in James Bay. She is assisting researchers with the Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) and Trent University. There are
16 people in camp on the northeast coast including a cook (smaller
camps cook for themselves) and a helicopter pilot who transports
researchers to study sites. Much of James Bay is covered with sea
ice. It is a late spring and temperatures for the next few days will
be below average. The earliest Canada Goose (subspecies interior)
eggs are about 10 days from hatching, which is 5-7 days later than in
2006 and 2007.

"Lesser" Snow Goose: Yesterday Ken Abraham (OMNR) saw a high flock of
200 Snow Geese flying in the direction of Baffin Island. Of
approximately 1000 breeding pairs of Lessers on Akimiski in 2005, 77%
were blue morph birds (Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 2007). They are the
most southerly breeding Snow Geese.

Brant: About 700 on 23 May with most yet to come.

Semipalmated Plover: First bird arrived on the 24 May. Erica Nol and
her students from Trent University have long-term studies of
Semipalmated Plovers on Akimiski and at Churchill, Manitoba. Breeding
success is much lower on Akimiski than farther north in Churchill.
Erica thinks that the larger Killdeer, which are more common on
Akimiski than in Churchill and they arrive earlier, are competing
with Semipalmated Plovers and limiting their southern breeding distribution.

Hudsonian Godwit: Scattered birds sighted yesterday. Small numbers
probably breed on Akimiski at the southern limit of the species range
(Ontario Atlas 2007).

Marbled Godwit: First two pairs arrived yesterday on 24 May. They
were feeding in mud along the northeast coast. The wintering grounds
of the isolated subarctic James Bay population are unknown. Last year
two birds were fitted with satellite transmitters. One transmitter
either fell off on Akimiski or the godwit died before migrating
south. The second bird left Akimiski in the late afternoon of 17
August 2007 and 8 hours later crossed Lake Superior. It was tracked
to New Mexico where the signal was lost on 29 August. The projected
route suggested it was heading for the Pacific coast of northern
Mexico. This was surprising because James Bay birds were thought to
winter on the Atlantic coast. However, one bird is too early to make
a conclusion. This summer American researchers Adrian Farmer of the
US Geological Survey in Colorado and Bridget Olson of the Bear River
Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah hope to place 5 transmitters on Marbled Godwits.

Other Bird Sightings: 4 Sandhill Cranes, American Bitterns singing, 6
Bonaparte's Gulls, Merlin nest near camp, Hermit Thrushes singing,
Swamp, Lincoln's and Fox Sparrows singing on territories, with
American Pipits, Lapland Longspurs, Snow Buntings and Common Redpolls
(some breed locally) on the move.

Mammals: No Polar Bears yet on the island because James Bay north of
the island is still mostly sea ice. Two Red Foxes have researchers
concerned because of nest predation on study birds. Last year a fox
killed a Marbled Godwit. Snowshoe Hares are around camp.

Frogs: Jean said the Wood Frog and Chorus Frog calls were deafening
as I talked to her last night.

Map link below shows snow and ice conditions. Akimiski (note green
island) is close to Ontario coast half way up west side of James Bay.
Also note large area of open water south of the island.

Update in 2-3 days.

Ron Pittaway
Toronto/Minden ON

James Bay - Akimiski Island Report # 3
From: Jean Iron <jeaniron AT SYMPATICO.CA>
Date: Tue, 27 May 2008 10:43:59 -0400
Jean Iron called late yesterday evening (26 May 08) from Akimiski
Island in James Bay. Shore ice is breaking up with the first inshore
tidal flooding yesterday, but temperatures are below average and
migration is late. Studies on the island are under the general
direction of Research Scientist Ken Abraham of the Ontario Ministry
of Natural Resources (OMNR).

SAY'S PHOEBE found by Ken Abraham on the 25 May. Two photos were
taken. First record for Nunavut (Jim Richards, pers. comm.).

Canada Goose: 240 nests found to date. John Brunjes, Department Fish
and Wildlife Government of Kentucky, is assisting OMNR's long-term
study of the interior subspecies as part of international agreements.

Brant: 750 on 25 May and 500 on 26 May. Peak numbers yet to arrive.

Shorebird Habitat Study: Master's student Lisa Pollock and thesis
supervisor Erica Nol of Trent are studying the habitat (including
core samples) of Akimiski's north coast to quantify its important to
migrating shorebirds. Habitat protection is the focus of conservation efforts.

Marbled Godwit: Numbers increasing with 16 observed 25 May. Adrian
Farmer and Bridget Olson have now placed transmitters on 3 godwits
with 2 more to go.

Hudsonian Godwit: 30 migrants on the coastal flats on 25 May. They
generally feed on the flats farther from shore than the Marbled and
the two species are not mixing. The Hudson Bay Lowlands may represent
50% of the Canadian population, with much of that in Ontario (Ross et
al. 2003, Ontario Shorebird Management Plan).

Shorebirds Sightings: 13 species including Black-bellied Plover,
Dunlin and Ruddy Turnstone, which are going farther north to breed.

Other Bird Sightings: Bald Eagle, Northern Harriers, 2 Peregrine
Falcons, light morph adult Parasitic Jaeger chasing a Herring Gull,
adult Glaucous Gull, large migration of hundreds of Lapland Longspurs
on 25 May with smaller numbers of American Pipits, Snow Buntings and
Common Redpolls.

Polar Bear tracks 2-3 km from camp on 25 May noted heading onto the
island and then returning to the sea ice. When the ice goes out up to
50 bears (most southerly Polar Bears in the world) will summer on the
island making life for researchers interesting.

Map of snow and ice conditions. Akimiski Island is close to the
Ontario coast half way along west side of James Bay.

Next update in a few days.

Ron Pittaway
Minden and Toronto ON
James Bay - Akimiski Island Report # 4
From: Jean Iron <jeaniron AT SYMPATICO.CA>
Date: Sat, 31 May 2008 17:40:04 -0400
This is Jean Iron's report for 27 - 30 May 2008. Migration is still
behind schedule. The pack ice is against the north coast of Akimiski
island providing very little inshore habitat and no open water.
Shorebird habitat is better along west coast of James Bay with very
large flocks of unidentified shorebirds seen flying northwest in that
direction. The effects of sea ice and the cold water of James Bay
create subarctic conditions deep into the interior of Canada. As an
example, Edmonton, Alberta is farther north than Akimiski Island.

Canada Goose: 800 nests found to date. First goslings on 30 May.

Brant and Snow Goose: On 29 May, Ken Abraham flew by helicopter to
nearest community of Atawapiskat on the Ontario coast. He saw
thousands of Brant along the west coast. Ken noted that they were fat
so in good condition for migration to breeding grounds much farther
north. He also noted about 1000 Snow Geese nesting on the western
portion of the island.

Semipalmated Plover: On 28 May, Erica Nol observed two colour-banded
plovers from last year, which apparently had just arrived. Males were
displaying. The females were actively feeding in the below average
temperatures after a long flight.

Marbled Godwit: Adrian Farmer and Bridget Olson fitted a mated pair
on territory with transmitters and took feather samples for isotope
analysis. Now all 5 transmitters are on godwits. The transmitters
work for 10 hours and turn off for 48. This sequence is repeated.
They will get information on local movements, how long the pair stays
together, when each sex migrates, whether they winter together and return
together, etc. Taxonomy and Populations: There are three breeding
populations of Marbled Godwits. The largest is "under 170,000
individuals" which breed on the northern prairies. This is the
nominate subspecies fedoa. The James Bay population size is
uncertain. There about 150 breeding pairs on Akimiski Island (Abraham
2007 in Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas). The largest number probably
breeds along the extensive flat west coast (prairie-like in places)
of Ontario. Quebec has a small population at the southern end of
James Bay adjacent to Ontario, but most of Quebec's much steeper
coast is unsuitable for nesting Marbled Godwits. The James Bay's
subarctic population of "about 1500 birds" is considered part of the
subspecies fedoa and probably originated from it. Adrian and Bridget
told Jean that Akimiski birds look different from mid-continent
prairie birds. More study is needed. The third disjunct breeding
population is the subspecies beringiae, which breeds on the Alaska
Peninsula (Gibson and Kessel 1989, Condor 91:436-443). The Alaskan
population is "about 2000 birds" suggesting that the James Bay
population is smaller.

Other Birds: Ken Abraham saw an American White Pelican,
Double-crested Cormorants and 30 Caspian Terns around the islands in
Akimiski Strait on 29 May. 8 American Bitterns calling. First
Short-eared Owl on 30 May. Flock of 28 Green-winged Teal. Northern
Pintail is the commonest puddle duck. 26 American Golden-Plover on 28
May. Scattered Hudsonian Godwits. 3 Red-necked Phalaropes on 30 May.
Boreal Chickadees and Gray Jays are in the burn behind the camp.
These Gray Jays do not associate people with food and are less
approachable. First Orange-crowned Warbler on 28 May seen by Burke
Korol. Burke also found a singing Le Conte's Sparrow on 28 May.
Many singing Fox and Lincoln's Sparrows. Hundreds of Lapland
Longspurs still migrating, but American Pipits and Snow Buntings now fewer.

Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 2007: Even though Akimiski Island is in
Nunavut, it was included in both Ontario atlasses because it is so
close to Ontario and its birds/vegetation are more closely allied to
Ontario mainland than to most of Nunavut. There is a copy of the new
Atlas in camp. When you're at remote sites, resources such as the
Atlas are invaluable.

Mammals: A Lynx was seen around camp on 29 May. Lynx and their main
prey Snowshoe Hares were in high numbers last winter in many areas of
northern Ontario. There are Snowshoe Hares (now mostly gray/brown
with whitish legs) around camp and a Red Fox chased a hare. One of
the foxes is a cross fox. This colour morph has long black hair on
the upper parts forming a cross from shoulder to shoulder. Meadow
Vole populations are generally low.

Map shows the snow and ice conditions. Note that the snow cover is
gone now along Ontario's north coast.

See three pages of Akimiski photos from Jean's trip at the same time
in 2006. She'll put up this year's photos when she returns about 12 June.

Next update in 2-3 days.

Ron Pittaway
Minden/Toronto ON
James Bay - Akimiski Island Report # 5
From: Jean Iron <jeaniron AT SYMPATICO.CA>
Date: Tue, 3 Jun 2008 14:59:41 -0400
This is report # 5 from Jean Iron via satellite phone for period 31
May to 2 June. She is a volunteer with the Ontario Ministry of
Natural Resources (OMNR) which administers the research camp on
Akimiski Island. Recent temperatures have been warmer (17C on 1 June)
and closer to normal daily highs of about 15C. There are wide temperature
changes depending on wind direction. Wednesday's forecast is a high
of 22C. At high tide there is a narrow band of open water along the
coast. The sea ice is grounded at low tide with no open water.
However, there is a wide band of mudflats at low tide where
shorebirds and geese feed. Sunrise today was about 5:09 and sunset
tonight about 21:47. Huge mirages over James Bay caused by the sun,
warm air and sea ice. Some good displays of northern lights.

"Interior" Canada Goose (subspecies interior): 950 nests and many
hatched young to date. First molt migrants seen on 31 May. These are
"Giant" Canada Geese (subspecies maxima) arriving from southern
Ontario and the northern United States. Yesterday's molt migrants
included flocks of 50-70 birds continuing northward. They generally
comprise year-old birds and failed breeders. Successful breeders do
not undertake molt migrations. They remain with the young and molt
locally while the young grow to full size as a family group.

"Lesser" Snow Goose (subspecies caerulescens): 1000 nesting pairs on
west side of island. No goslings to date because hatching is later
than in Canada Geese. Ken Abraham (OMNR) estimated that 80% of the
colony is blue morph birds. Many older birders remember when the Blue
Goose was considered a distinct species. The Blue Goose was
reclassified as a morph of the Snow Goose in 1973 by the American
Ornithologists' Union. Historically the two forms nested and wintered
in separate areas and mixed pairs were unknown. They began
interbreeding about 50 to 90 years ago, probably because of human
alterations to their winter habitat that brought the two forms
together. Harry Lumsden (1987) in the first Breeding Bird Atlas
reported that there were about a 100 pairs at Cape Henrietta Maria at
the junction of Hudson and James Bays in 1974. Ken Abraham (2007) in
the second Breeding Bird Atlas reported 130,000 pairs in 2005 in the
Cape area. There is a tendency to think of bird populations as fixed,
but the changes documented in the second Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas
(2007) for the Snow Goose and for many other bird species are
staggering and ongoing.

Nest Predation: Increased nest predation this year on goose nests and
small flightless goslings by Red Foxes, Herring Gulls and Northern
Ravens because of low small mammal populations such as voles. In
years when voles and lemmings are abundant in the north, predation is
much less on nesting geese and shorebirds by gulls, jaegers, ravens,
raptors, foxes, weasels, etc.

First ever record of a Gadwall for Akimiski on 31 May.

Shorebird Migration: Many distant large flocks of unidentified
shorebirds migrating across James Bay from the southeast to
northwest. On 2 June there were 85 Black-bellied Plover, 5 Red Knots,
4 Sanderlings and 130 Dunlin on mudflats between sea ice and shore.

Short-billed Dowitcher: Jean observed 8 individuals on 2 June. They
were the expected nominate subspecies griseus based on the cinnamon
coloration being restricted to the chest area.

Gyrfalcon: An intermediate (gray) morph bird killed a Northern
Pintail on 31 May. While the Gyr ate its prey, a Herring Gull and
several Northern Ravens tried to get a piece of the action.

Peregrine Falcon: Three along coast chasing longspurs and pipits.
These are migrants (mainly subspecies tundrius) going much farther
north to breed. No cliffs for nest sites on Akimiski and along
Ontario's coast of Hudson and James Bays.

Other Bird Sightings: 31 May: First 2 Arctic Terns (65 migrants
fishing yesterday along shore at high tide), scattered small groups
of American Golden and Black-bellied Plovers, 2 Bank Swallows,
singing Horned Larks on territory (nominate subspecies alpestris),
Yellow Warbler, 100s of Lapland Longspurs. 1 June: American Kestrel
at camp, singing Blackpoll and Wilson's Warblers, 1 Tree and 1 Barn
Swallow. 2 June: 1 Cedar Waxwing, and many Lincolin's Sparrows singing loudly.

Follow daily changes in snow and ice conditions.

Next update 6 June.

Ron Pittaway
Minden/Toronto ON
James Bay - Akimiski Island Report # 6
From: Jean Iron <jeaniron AT SYMPATICO.CA>
Date: Sat, 7 Jun 2008 09:23:37 -0400
Here is Jean Iron's report from Akimiski Island for the period 3 - 6
June 2008. Akimiski is about 1100 km (700 mi) north of Toronto,
Ontario. While yesterday's high temperature in Toronto was a record
34C, it was 4C on Akimiski at 10 p.m. last night when Jean called me.
She was outside waiting for satellite phone reception. Sea ice still
covers most of James Bay greatly affecting local weather conditions.
Weather has been typical of James Bay in early June with a mixture of
fog, cold, sun, rain, wind and sometimes it's warm.

Brant (Atlantic subspecies hrota): 1500 migrants on 4 - 5 June were
feeding on the "goose lawns" of Puccinellia or "goose grass" in
coastal salt marshes. The last Brant (heavy with fat) will depart
soon for the High Arctic Islands of Canada.

Canada Goose: An aerial survey found an estimated 110,000 birds in
the southern James Bay population, which is slightly above the
long-term average. Peak hatching has been the past few days. Broods
are feeding with Brant in the greening salt marshes. Crews are now
web tagging goslings. Later this summer these young geese will
be banded along with the flightless molting adults. Canada Geese
usually return to nest near their hatch area. This long-term
population study is headed by Ken Abraham of the Ontario Ministry of
Natural Resources (OMNR).

Shorebird Migration and Breeding: A fallout of 15 shorebird species
was observed on 3 June during low clouds and rain. This included 71
Black-bellied Plovers and 10 Red Knots on coastal mudflats. Low
Arctic shorebirds in the Hudson Bay Lowlands are on their nesting
grounds. These include Semipalmated Plover, Whimbrel, Hudsonian
Godwit, Least Sandpiper, both yellowlegs, Short-billed Dowitcher,
Solitary Sandpiper, etc. Some High Arctic breeders are still
migrating through James Bay such as Black-bellied Plover, Red Knot,
Ruddy Turnstone, Sanderling, and White-rumped Sandpiper, but their
migration will end soon.

Marbled Godwit: 18 birds on 4 June. Nests are extremely difficult to
find. The solution is bringing in Mark Peck, nest finder
extraordinaire of the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM). Mark and his father
George Peck run the Ontario Nest Record Scheme based at the ROM. Mark
Peck, Tyler Hoar and Gerry Binsfeld arrive on 10 June to assist with
OMNR and Trent University research projects.

Shorebird Nest Predation Study: Researchers on Akimiski are
participating in a study of predation rates on shorebird nests and
eggs. 40 random sites are now being staked out. Four quail eggs will
be placed in each artificial nest. Rates of predation will be
measured over time including the species of predator when known. The
study is being conducted at many sites in northern Canada. Shorebird
expert Guy Morrison of the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) is leading
the study.

Pacific Loon: Two seen on 6 June near camp by Ken Abraham. Pacific
Loons nest on Akimiski. This the southern limit of breeding in North
America (Abraham and Sutherland in Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 2007).

Other Bird Sightings: Arctic Terns are nesting on gravel ridges and
mossy islands. Two Caspian Terns on 3 June. The migration has
finished for Common Redpoll, American Pipit, Lapland Longspur and Snow Bunting.

Polar Bears: Shorebird graduate student Lisa Pollock of Trent and
Jean saw tracks while taking core samples on the mudflats yesterday.
As the ice breaks up, about 50 bears will come ashore to summer on
the island. These are the most southerly Polar Bears in the world.
Crews are trained in firearm handling and safety.

Follow daily changes in snow and ice conditions.

Update in 3 days.

Ron Pittaway
Minden and Toronto ON
James Bay - Akimiski Island Report # 7
From: Jean Iron <jeaniron AT SYMPATICO.CA>
Date: Wed, 11 Jun 2008 20:44:08 -0400
This is Jean Iron's final report for the period 7 - 11 June 2008 from
Akimiski Island in James Bay, Canada. Recent below average
temperatures and prevailing strong north winds have made for
difficult conditions. The nice part is that mosquitoes didn't bother
researchers. It has been a cold late spring in the James Bay region to date.

"Lesser" Snow Goose: First eggs hatched on 9 June. Many eggs were pipping.

Brant: 650 around camp should be migrating farther north soon.
They're very fat almost dragging their rear ends. Ken Abraham noted
that he has not seen any copulating, which should be normal behaviour
this late in the season for staging birds that are already paired off.

Cackling Goose: Three on 10 June were likely headed for Southampton
or Baffin Island.

Canada Goose: 1200 goslings web tagged and completed. A crew will
return in August to band them when they are larger.

Hudsonian Godwit: 19 Hudsonian Godwits on 10 June. Of interest was
that 17 of the 19 were brick red males. 42 Hudsonians on 11 June also
had a majority being males. This species in the Hudson Bay Lowlands
should be paired now and on the breeding grounds. Are these birds
migrants, early failed breeders, non-breeders? Jehl (2004) in
Birdlife of Churchill Region (Manitoba) reported that early arriving
flocks in late May are dominated by males with local birds moving at
once to the nesting territories. Jehl also reported that flocks
gathering at Churchill in early July "tend to be skewed in favor of
males, which is puzzling because both parents tend the young into late July."

Other Shorebirds: Burke Korol photographed a Short-billed Dowitcher
(nominate subspecies griseus) on 9 June. Five on Short-billeds on 10
June were not identified to subspecies. Today Jean saw 12
Short-billeds and photograhed several nominate griseus. Mixed flocks
(+200 in one flock) of unidentified shorebirds flying northwest over
the ice of James Bay presumably originating from the Atlantic. High
Arctic breeders are still migrating and will continue to mid-June.
For example, there were 70 Black-bellied Plover on 7 June, 29 on 8
June, 30 on 8 June, 12 on 10 June and 4 on 11 June.  6 Ruddy
Turnstones, 9 Red Knots, 50 Dunlin, 70 Semipalmated Sandpipers,
several White-rumped Sandpipers and scattered Sanderlings observed on
8 June. On 11 June there were 5 Red Knots, 9 Ruddy Turnstones and 15
White-rumped Sandpipers.

Shorebird Artificial Nest Study: On 8 June a very high tide driven by
a strong north wind washed out 4 of the 40 artificial nests. These
four were relocated to higher ground on 9 June. On 10 June 24 of the
"dummy nests" were checked with 21 showing evidence of depredation.

Other Bird Sightings: A Bufflehead and a "Western" Palm Warbler
(expected nominate subspecies palmarum) on 8 June were new for this
year. A two year old Iceland Gull was seen on 7-8 June. Common
Nighthawks heard over camp on two occasions.

James Bay Birds Having Western Affinities: The new Ontario Breeding
Bird Atlas (2007) shows a significant number of birds occurring east
to the James Bay area which have distinct western or western boreal
affinities. These include Lesser Scaup, White-winged Scoter,
Bufflehead (primarily western), American White Pelican, Sharp-tailed
Grouse, Sandhill Crane (subspecies rowani of the aspen parklands and
western boreal), Lesser Yellowlegs, Marbled Godwit, Wilson's
Phalarope (rare), Bonaparte's Gull, Great Gray Owl, Bohemian Waxwing,
Orange-crowned Warbler (primarily western with small numbers in the
East), Connecticut Warbler, Clay-colored Sparrow, Le Conte's Sparrow,
and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (subspecies alterus which is
similar to nominate nelsoni). There is a western component in other
taxa such as the Boreal Chorus Frog. The broad coastal marshes and
wet meadows of western James Bay remind one of the northern prairies.
The geology, soil, precipitation, similar plants, and vegetation
structure probably account for the above birds whose core ranges are
more to the West. I thank Michel Gosselin of the Canadian Museum of
Nature for interesting discussions on bird biogeography.

Late Sea Ice: We had questions asking why the ice cover persists so
long on Hudson and James Bays. Because half of the major rivers of
Canada flow into James and Hudson Bays, their salinity averages 1/3
that of the North Atlantic. This results in earlier freezing in fall,
thicker ice in winter, and very late melting with extensive sea ice
well into July. This contributes to the formation of the most
southerly tundra in the world extending southeast along the Ontario
coast terminating in a wide tundra expanse at Cape Henrietta Maria at
the junction of Hudson and James Bay. Note the current extensive ice
cover extending well into southern James Bay.

Today an Ontario Government Twin Otter flew 8 of the 13 member crew
to Moosonee and Timmins. Jean is sad leaving Akimiski Island. It is
an uninhabited and unspoiled coastal wilderness with none of the
flotsam common along coastlines in much of the world. Once you
experience the aura of the north, there is the desire to return year
after year. Five Belugas (whales) were seen from the plane this
afternoon about half way between Akimiski and Moosonee. Jean thanks
Research Scientist Ken Abraham and the Ontario Ministry of Natural
Resources (OMNR) for the opportunity to assist research projects. She
was impressed with the crews who worked 10 hours in the field plus
evenings downloading data from their PDAs (personal digital
assistant) and planning the next day's activities.

Today's flight to Akimiski Island dropped off Mark Peck of the Royal
Ontario Museum and two associates, Tyler Hoar and Gerry Binsfeld.
They will continue the artificial nest depredation study, look for
Marbled Godwit nests, survey Semipalmated Plovers, and assist with
ongoing studies. Mark will phone us with reports from Akimiski Island.

Reference: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas (2007)

Ron Pittaway
Toronto and Minden ON